PERIPHERALS AND EXPANSION

CHAPTER 3: PERIPHERALS AND EXPANSION

Installing and Configuring Expansion Cards

 

  • Circuit installed in a computer to increase its capabilities.
  • Drivers needed to make integrated devices function

 

VIDEO CARD

  • Allows the computer to display some kind of information on monitor
  • Can accelerate the speed of display
  • PCIe is most common slot

 

MULTIMEDIA CARD

  • Sound Card
    • Convert computer signals to sound, integrated now-a-days
    • 1/8” jack to connect ear-phones, speakers, mic
    • Come with a RCA jack
    • Sony/Philips Digital Interface allows audio to transmit in digital quality
    • TV Tuner/Video Capture
      • Connect to broadcast signal like cable television & display output on computer monitor
      • Can be analog, digital or hybrid
      • Video capture card can capture video which can be streamed afterwards

 

I/O CARD

  • Expands system for input or output device like RS232, parallel ports
  • Earlier Super I/O card used
  • SCSI devices requires expanded motherboard capabilities to allow usage
  • Devices cable to adapter which makes the conversions which motherboard can understand

 

COMMUNICATION CARD

  • Transmit data to other devices
  • Network Adapters (used within administrative domain of home)
  • NETWOK INTERFACE CARD (NIC)
    • Connects computer to network
    • Converts parallel data in PC to serial and make frames
    • Can have different connectors like PCI, PCIe, RJ45
    • Wireless NIC: in wired NIC a link is already created but in wireless first the access pints or ad-hoc points must also be configured
    • Cellular Cards: Adapters that can be installed in PC providing cellular service like accessing internet
    • MODEMS (allow direct domestic or international connection via PSTN) most common
      • Connect to internet using a dialup connection
      • Converts digital signals (PC) to analog signals (phone line) and back again
      • Expansion bus for motherboard and other port for phone

 

RISER CARDS

  • New Low Profile Extended (NLX), alternate to motherboard form factor
  • Places expansion cards sideways
  • Thus more expansion devices can be accommodated in parallel to motherboard

 

 

ADAPTER CONFIGURATION

  • Most are recognized easily by plug and play system
  • Some modern adapters require more special configuration steps
  • Also advanced features need to be implemented using OS or utilities that came with adapters
  • Wired configuration is easier than wireless

 

 

Identifying Characteristics of Connectors and Cables

 

Connectors

 

D-SUBMINIATURE

  • Most common with DXn (X=A-E in size, n=no. of pins)
  • Trapezoidal shape with 2 rows of pin
  • D-shape ensures that 1 orientation is possible

 

RJ-SERIES

  • Used in telecommunications like RJ-11, RJ-45
  • RJ-45 larger and found on Ethernet

 

OTHER

  • Universal Serial BUS (USB):
    • Connect upto 127 devices through single port
    • USB .x upto 12MBps
    • USB 2.0 upto 480MBps
    • USB 3.0 upto 5GBps
    • Highly flexible, easy, fast
    • IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
      • Easy, isochronous, very high transmission rates, high power output
      • Not so common
      • Usually used to get digital video into PC
      • Infrared
        • First wireless to exchange data
        • Slow, line of sight communication
        • Audio/Video Jacks
          • RCA jacks transmit audio & video
          • Digital audio implemented by S/PDIF
          • 1/8” jack more common for audio
          • HDMI interface also present
          • PS/2 (Keyboard Mouse)
            • mini-DIN6 connector
            • Keyboard-purple                  Mouse-green
            • Centronics
              • Micro ribbon connector
              • Central bar with outside surrounding ring

 

PERIPHERAL CABLES & THEIR INTERFACES

 

Interface is a method of connecting two dissimilar items together

 

CABLES

 

FLOPPY AND HARD DISK CONNECTORS

 

2 types of interfaces

 

  • FLOPPY DISK
    • Allow FDD and internal tape devices connected to motherboard
    • today these interfaces are nonexistent
    • HARD DISK
      • Serial ATA, EIDE are found on motherboards(40-wire)
      • PATA is very rare. Originally black
      • If blue then ATA5 or above UDMA(80-wire)

 

 

COMMON PORTS AND CONNECTORS

 

Classic Game Port

  • Used to connect joysticks, Musical Instrument Digital Interface(MIDI) devices
  • DA-15F connectors common

 

 

Analog Sound Jacks

  • 3.5mm stereo jack
  • for 7.1 surround sound 8 channels required  (7=bandwidth, 1=one low frequency channel)
  • Similar for 3.1, 5.1 surround sound
  • Speakers placed at certain angles to produce the surround sound

 

 

Parallel Interfaces

  • Parallel ports faster than original serial
  • Standard Parallel Port
    • Transmits data out of computer at 150KBps
    • Max distance is 10feet
    • Bidirectional Parallel Ports
      • Transmit & receive data
      • Enhanced Parallel Ports
        • IEEE 1284 standard increased the speed
        • Data+address can be sent to memory
        • Virtual extension to main BUS
        • Max distance 15feet
        • Enhanced Parallel Port(EPP) 600KBps-1.5MBps
        • Enhanced Capabilities Port(ECP) accesses DMA
        • INTERFACES AND CABLES
          • DB25 female connector most common
          • 8-wires present

 

 

Serial

  • Data sent one after another
  • Standard Serial
    • DB-9, DB-25 port
    • 75KBps with maximum length 50feet
    • 2 wiring configurations
      • Standard : hook peripherals like modems, printers
      • Null : No modem required, direct PC to PC
      • USB
        • Most versatile
        • Plug-and-play
        • Drivers easily available or preinstalled
        • 2 types: Type A & Type B
        • USB3.0 SuperSpeed has additional pins for faster data rates
        • USB HUB gives several USB ports from 1 (don’t use more than 5 ports)
        • Hosts not networkable
        • Type A oriented to system from component
        • Type B connect in direction of peripheral component

 

 

 

USB2.0

USB3.0

SHIELDING

NA

Shielded from EMI

CONNECTORS

4 pins

5 extra pins

BURST & STREAM

NA

Supports Bursting

DUPLEX

Half Duplex

Full-duplex

MEDIA ACCESS

Wait until polled

Transmitted at will

HOST CONTROL

PC controls power, error

Both ends control power, error

POWER

Max 100mA at low & 500mA at high power

Max 150mA at low & 900mA at high power

 

 

IEEE 1394(FireWire)

  • High speed and efficiency
  • First iteration FireWire400 rate of 400 MBps
  • Higher power 1.5A at 30VDC than USB
  • Next iteration FireWire800 rate of 800MBps and full duplex over 4.5m with 63 devices connected
  • FireWire400 uses 6-wire cable with 4 for data transmission =>alpha connectors
  • FireWire800 uses 9-wire with beta-connectors
  • Used as universal high-speed data interface for hard disk, optical drives
  • Peripherals can be networked together into WAN, LAN
  • 64000 devices can communicate together without host PC
  • Single device connects to 2 devices and so on, creating daisy-chaining

 

 

RCA

  • A simple coaxial cable
  • 2 connectors on each side with 2 contacts on each (ground ring, positive in middle)
  • Used to extend audio/video signals

 

 

PS/2

  • Used to connect mouse and keyboard
  • Original AT had 5-pin DIN
  • Once most popular now being replaced by USB

 

 

VIDEO DISPLAY CABLES AND CONNECTORS

 

VGA now being replaced with DVI/HDMI as analog by digital

 

 

Digital Visual Interface (DVI)

  • Offer high digital standards
  • Similar to D-sub connector but has asymmetrical pins
  •  3 types:
    • DVI-A: Analog only connector. Source and monitor should use analog data
    • DVI-D: Digital only connector. Source and monitor should use digital data
    • DVI-I: Combination of analog/digital. Source and monitor should use analog/digital data
    • DVI-I & DVI-D come in 2 varieties:
      • Single Link
      • Dual Link: has more conductors for higher speed and quality
      • DVI-A, DVI-I are better, faster than VGA
      • DVI-I cannot connect analog to digital
      • Upto 4.5m

 

High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI)

  • Completely digital dual link but faster frame rate and audio right on same connector
  • Can also support CEC feature that allows transmission from remote device
  • HDMI is compatible with DVI-D DVI-I through proper adapters
  • 3D video sources compatible
  • type B has 19 pins for higher resolution
  • Type C connector for portable devices (mini HDMI)
  • Type D micro HDMI
  • Length can be material dependent from 15-100m

 

Component Video

  • better-quality video by splitting the red, green, and bluecomponent
  • videoperforms signal-splitting function similar to RGB separation
  • fourth pathway for synchronization
  • To reduce bandwidth:
    • uncompressed signal called luma (Y) represents brightness
    • creates two compressed color-difference signals Pb and Pr. These chrominance (chroma) signals are known as B – Y andR – Y
    • No need for green color-difference signal
    • Capable of transmitting HD video at full 1080p

 

S-Video

  • Combines the twochroma signals into one, resulting in video quality not good as YPbPr.
  • 7-pin mini-DIN ports use the extra pins to provide full Y, Pb, and Pr leads with four groundleads, making S-video equivalent to component video
  • 4-pin, 6-pin also available
  • ATI hasused 8-, 9-, and 10-pin versions of the connector that include features as anS-video input path in addition to output, bidirectionalpin, audio input/output.

 

Composite Video

  • combines all luma and chroma leads into one
  • Once combined the signals cannot be splitted back
  • A single yellow RCA jack
  • More susceptible to aliasing,cross coloration

 

DisplayPort

  • royalty-free digital display interface from the Video Electronics StandardsAssociation (VESA) that uses less power than other digital interfaces and VGA
  • Functionally similar to HDMI &DVI
  • Can extend 3-33m
  • Thunderbolt combines PCIe with the DisplayPort technology. Less expensive than full-sized DisplayPort. 9-pin IEEE 1394b beta port used.

 

Coaxial

  • One is terminated by RCA or BNC plugs and serves a single frequency (baseband
  • the other is terminated by F connectors, those seen in cable television (CATV)setting (broadband)

 

Ethernet

  • Compressed and uncompressed A/V can be sent over IP
  • As with VoIP, quality of service (QoS)must be implemented and supported throughout the data network or A/Vquality will surely suffer

 

 

Input Devices

 

Transfers information from outside to internal storage memory

 

MOUSE

  • hand-fitting device uses motion-detection mechanism
  • translate physical two-dimensional movement into onscreen cursor motion
  • balls, tablets, touchpads, and pointing sticks
  • Ball based motion detection initially, now lasers
  • Wired or wireless
  • 1 or 2 or more buttons plus a wheel for scrolling
  • Touch pads—flat panels below the spacebar—and pointing sticks—eraser-like protrusionsin the middle of the keyboard—are found mainly on laptops
  • trackballis morelike an inverted mouse, so let’s look at how they compare to each other

 

 

KEYBOARD

  • standard QWERTY layout, now have separatecursor-movement and numerical keypads
  • Function keys also included
  • keys complete individual circuits when pressed sending unique scan code
  • controller decodes the code and tells PC which key is pressed

 

SCANNER

  • Before USB connected with SCSI bus
  • Hand held scanners included software to intelligently stitch together the scanned ribbons into image
  • Emit light and measure the reflected light to detect image
  • Charge coupled devices (CCDs)convert light into electrical impulses producing image
  • combination of scanner copier printer fax is very popular

 

BARCODE READER

  • Input device used in retail& industrial sectors that manage inventory
  • Use LED/laser to scan 2D barcodes
  • USB most common
  • Thescanner converts output to keyboard scans so that the system treats the input as keyboard
  • Universal ProductCode (UPC) barcodes and Quick Response (QR) codes and other 2D matrix barcodes can beinput and processed using smart phone cameras

 

DIGITIZER

  • Trace an analog source, turning it into a digital representation
  • Act of turning any analog source—artwork,audio, video, slides and photographs—into a binary bit stream

 

BIOMETRIC DEVICES

  • Measures physical or behavioral features of an organism
  • Fingerprint scanners, retinal and iris scanners, voice recognition devices
  • A computer can use this input to authenticatethe user

 

TOUCHSCREENS

  • Converts touching of screen to electric impulses
  • Replace mouse in movement and click
  • Technology also seen in PDAs, smartphones, ATMs
  • Resistive and capacitive most popular technologies
  • Generally USB interfaced

 

KVM SWITCH

  • Allows to switch b/w input devices
  • mouse/keyboard to mini-DIN, monitor to VGA/HDMI
  • Use same I/P to multiple PCs

 

GAMEPADS AND JOYSTICKS

  • Specialty controllers for games
  • Joystick: analog buttons with variable bar
  • Gamepad: function and direction buttons
  • DB25/DE9/DA15/USB ports

 

MULTIMEDIA INPUT DEVICES

  • Webcams
    • Video-camera device for capturing videos
    • Used for security, video conferencing
    • USB/WiFi
    • MIDI Devices
      • Microphones, audio playback as audio input
      • MIDI controller creates messages synthesizing user’s music
      • MIDI files are small files containing digitalized audio waveforms
      • 5-pin DIN connectors
      • Direct connection or daisy chaining but it produces delays
      • Digital Cameras & Camcorders
        • Digital camera takes still pictures
        • camcorder takes videos
        • Now devices do both
        • Have inbuilt batteries and flash memory for easy storage
        • Mostly transferred via USB

 

 

OUTPUT DEVICES

 

PRINTERS

  • To produce hardcopy of data
  • Impact, inkjet, laser
  • Parallel, serial, USB

 

SPEAKERS

  • Speakers and orientations have already been discussed

 

DISPLAY DEVICES

  • configuration is Plug and Play
  • Easy to install
  • Rest will be discussed in next chapter

 

Search

Shortcodes Ultimate

 
Follow Us
 
BGP