Generalization, Specialization and Aggregation Concepts in DBMS

Generalization, Specialization and Aggregation in DBMS

Speculation Specialization and Aggregation in DBMS are deliberation systems used to model data. The reflection is the instrument used to shroud the unnecessary points of interest of an arrangement of articles.

For instance, vehicle is a reflection that incorporates the sort’s auto, jeep and transport.

In this way, the two deliberation instruments used to model data:

  • Speculation (Specialization is the opposite procedure of Generalization)
  • Collection

Generalization in DBMS

Speculation is an abstracting procedure of review sets of items as a solitary general class by focusing on the general attributes of the constituent sets while stifling or overlooking their disparities.

In basic terms, Generalization is a procedure of removing normal attributes from two or more classes and joining them into a summed up superclass. In this way, it is a base up methodology as two or lower lever substances are consolidated to shape a more elevated amount element.

The normal qualities implies here properties or techniques.

Notation of Generalization

Generalization is represented by a triangle with a line.


Generalization is an IS_A relationship

Example of Generalization:

For instance, a Part_Time Employee and Full_Time Employee element sets can be summed up as EMPLOYEE substance sets;

  • The Full_Time_Employee is a speculation of the substance set Faculty and Staff;
  • The Part_Time_Employee is a speculation of the substance set teaching and casual. 

 teaching and casual.

Bike element is not appeared as it doesn’t fulfill conditions for a subtype in light of the fact that it has every one of the credits normal to all vehicles. In this way, there are no ascribes particular to cruisers. Further, MOTORCYCLE does not have a relationship to another substance sort.

Specialization in DBMS

Specialization might be seen as the opposite procedure of Generalization. Specialization is the abstracting procedure of acquainting new qualities with a current class of items to make one or all the more new classes of articles.

In basic terms, a gathering of substances in specialization can be classified into sub-bunches in view of their attributes. So it is a top-down methodology in which one larger amount substance can be separated into two lower level element. It characterizes one or more subtypes of the supertypes and framing supertype/subtype connections.


In the above case, Faculty and Staff acquires the characteristic pay of the substance set Full_Time_Employee and last mentioned, thus acquires the properties of Employee. In this way, Faculty and Staff is a specialization of Full_Time_Employee and Full_Time_Employee is a specialization of Employee.

Additionally, Teaching and Casual acquires the quality Wage of the element set Part_Time_Employee and last mentioned, thus acquires the traits of Employee. Along these lines, Teaching and Casual is a specialization of Part_Time_Employee and Part_Time_Employee is a specialization of Employee.

Aggregation in DBMS

Conglomeration is the procedure of ordering data on an item, in this way abstracting a larger amount object. So, an element Person is inferred by amassing the qualities name, house_no., city and government managed savings number(SSN).


Another type of total says that it is abstracting a relationship in the middle of articles and survey the relationship as an item. Along these lines, in Figure below, the Enrollment relationship between substances understudy and Course element can be seen as element REGISTRATION.


In simple terms, Aggregation is a process when relation between two entities is treated as a single entity.

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